Thursday, 19 March 2020

Alt History Canada part 2

As per my previous post on an alternative history for Canada in which Canada is bigger and more influential on the world scene because of a couple minor tweaks to the original history...
https://marymargretcallahan.blogspot.com/2020/01/alt-history-canada.html

It is all based on Turtledove Award winning writer Dathi Thorfinnsson
who started the story back in 2009 in his paper https://www.alternatehistory.com/wiki/doku.php?id=timelines:canadawank

With this alternate timeline, there is much and more to Canada in the present day. With 15 provinces and 6 territories (yes, Alaska got promoted), details about each province and territory have varied. I am going off of the assumed map of Canada in 2010 posted by AMValencia on Deviantart, seen here: https://www.deviantart.com/amvalencia/art/Canada-and-Northern-America-2010-431474660

This goes beyond Thorfinnsson's timeline which has ended in the 1840's. It assumes a lot of future changes which I posted in my previous subject blog.

So for this post, I wanted to do Wiki pages style entries for each province and territory with all the alt Canada stats.

Here we go...

Canada


A Kingdom within the British Empire. Established as self governing in 1842. Form of government is a parliamentary democracy.
Capital: Windsor, Ontario
Area: 14,930,770 square km (2nd in the world)
Population: 94,476,000 (16th in world)
Highest Point: Mount Denali, Alaska 6,190m
Currency: Canadian Pound £

Canada is a large country consisting of six distinctive geographic areas; the mountainous west coast temperate zone, the central prairies, the arctic tundra, the rocky forests of the east central temperate zone, the great lakes region, and the east coast maritime region. 

Canada is home to an abundance of natural resources.
Energy resources include natural gas, crude oil, crude bitumen (oil sands) and coal. Mineral resources include gold-silver, nickel-copper, copper-zinc, lead-zinc, iron, molybdenum, uranium, potash and diamonds. Timber reserves include timber stocks that are physically accessible and available for harvesting. Canada has the largest natural supply of fresh water on earth. 

Canada was first peopled about 10,000 years ago via a land bridge from Asia in what is now the Bearing Straits. Thousands of native tribes inhabited the land since. Inuit people came to the north about three thousand years ago from Asia. The first Europeans arrived around 900 AD from Scandinavia, establishing colonies on Greenland and Newfoundland. John Cabot, exploring for England found Newfoundland in 1497. Explores from France arrived in the Saint Lawrence area in the early 1500's establishing the colony of New France. Alaska was discovered and colonized by Russia in the 1740's. The western coast was first discovered by Spanish explorers in the 1590's and later colonized by the English in the early 1700's. 

Wars between France and Britain resulted in Britain's taking of New France in 1759. When thirteen of the British colonies in North America revolted against the crown starting in 1775, many loyalists left to come to Canada. The new United States established in 1783, expanded westward into native territories. The United States declared war against Canada and Britain in 1812 in an effort to expand their territory, stop British aid to the natives, force Britain out of North America and aid their ally, Napoleon against Britain. The war was won by Britain, with its Canadians and native tribes support. 

After the war, Britain attempted to consolidate its North American colonies into one self governing nation. The process took several years before five provinces joined as Canada (Michigan, Ontario, Quebec, Acadia and Nova Scotia). A second US Canada war in 1842 was equally disastrous for the US. Canada gained more land in the process. Illinois and Wisconsin join as provinces in 1846 and 1850 respectively. The new country bought up Rupert's Land and the North West territories from private companies to connect to the west. Nova Cambria and Oregon became provinces in 1862. Manitoba becomes a province in 1865. In 1866, Britain purchased Alaska from Russia and gave the southern coast line to Nova Cambria. In 1870, Britain gave the rest of Alaska to Canada as a territory. 

A third US Canada war in 1892, saw a large land grab for the US after they had taken half of Mexico in 1870. They take land that had been considered native homelands. The war defined the final borders with Canada, and Athabasca and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1893. The gold rush of the 1890's sees more people move north into Alaska and the Yukon. Newfoundland joins Canada in 1920 after World War 1 with some pressure from Britain. The war sees Canada and the US fighting on the same side for the first time. In 1933, Britain purchased Greenland from Denmark and gave it to Canada. In 1997, the Northwest Territories divides into Denendeh and Nunavut, the latter being an autonomous region for the Inuit. In 2012, Alaska is elevated to a province.

Canada continues to be a successful economic country with a diversity between industry, agriculture, natural resources, manufacturing, fishing, science and technology and business and has the fourth highest GDP in the world. Canada is also a strong military leader and permanent member of the UN Security Council. 

Provinces and territories:

Newfoundland and Labrador,

Province of Newfoundland and Labrador (1920)
Capital: St. John's
Area: 405,212 sq. km (Newfoundland 108,861 sq.km, Labrador 294,330 sq. km)  ranked 14th
Population: 890,000, ranked 13th
Highest Point: Mount Caubvick (Labrador) 1,652 m
Plant: Pitcher Plant
Bird: Arctic Puffin

Formerly the land of the native Beothuks (extinct), the Mi'kmaq people in Newfoundland and the Inuit in Labrador still exist. Scandinavian explores arrived in the 900 AD period but abandon their colonies. John Cabot is credited with the rediscovery in 1497. Portugal held a claim for some time before England formally claimed the land in 1583. France competed for a time until settlement in 1710. The islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon were annexed in 1820. Newfoundland received  a fare share of immigrants coming from Ireland after the potato famine in the 1840s. It remained an English colony until 1920 when it joined Canada. Newfoundlanders fought in WW1 as a colony but fought as part of Canada since then. Newfoundland has long been world renown for commercial fishing but cod stocks dropped in the early 2000s. Off shore oil has helped boost the sagging economy of the province in recent years.   

Largest cities: St. John's 520,000 CMA, Corner Brook 35,000, Gander 20,000, Grand Falls-Windsor 18,000, Paradise 15,000 St. Pierre 12,000, Happy Valley-Goose Bay 9,000.

Primary languages spoken: English 91%, Gaelic 6%, French 2%, Native (Inuit, Inuktitut) 1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 12%

Ethnicity: British isles 87%, Native 8%, Asian 2%, S European 2%, Indian 1%, All others <1%

Schools: Memorial University (St. John's), 7 colleges.

Pro Sports:  hockey, St. John's Shamrocks (NHL)

Economy: Oil and gas industry, lumber, fishing (cod, halibut, herring, haddock, mackerel, salmon, shrimp, clams), mining (iron, nickel, copper, zinc, silver, gold), agriculture (potatoes, dairy cattle, sheep, berries). Newfoundland and Labrador's economy is ranked 14th.

Military: Royal Canadian Navy, base St.John's; North Atlantic Squadron (2 cruisers {1 British}, 1 heli-carrier, 10 destroyers, 5 frigates, 4 subs, 1 Marine transport, 2 supt ships), RCN basic training school, 1st Regiment RC Marines, Marine Training Center.

              Royal Canadian Army, base Happy Valley; 58 Brigade, 12 (Arctic) Division, B Coy Canadian Rangers. 851 Tac Hel Sqn (RCAF).  (St John's, Corner Brook, St. Pierre); 44 Brigade (Res), 4 (Armoured) Division .

              Royal Canadian Air Force, base Gander; 18 Wing; 109 Search and Rescue Sqn, 434 Transport Sqn, 457 Refuel Sqn, 611 Anti-Sub Sqn, 121 AAD Bty (RCA).  Base Goose Bay; 19 Wing; 770 Fighter Sqn, 772 Fighter Sqn, 767 (British) Fighter Sqn., NATO fighter trg center, 119 AAD Bty (RCA)


Nova Scotia,

Province of Nova Scotia (1842)
Capital: Halifax
Area: 55,284 sq.kms, ranked 21st; smallest
Population: 2,050,000, ranked 11th
Highest Point: White Hill, 535m
Plant: Mayflower
Bird: Osprey

Original home of the Mi'kmaq tribes, French settlers came in 1604 establishing the colony of Acadia. Nine wars took place over the land before 1710 when the British defeated the French. They began to expel the Acadians and replacing them with English and Scottish settlers. Several more battles took place with Cape Breton Island falling to the British in 1749. English settlement continued with the port of Halifax being the key eastern port in British North America. Halifax became the home to many escaped American slaves in the years following the American revolution. It also received a large number of Irish immigrants following the potato famine who settled mostly in Cape Breton. Nova Scotia was one of the original provinces of Canada in 1842. Halifax is Canada's busiest port and is known for shipping and ship building. Nova Scotia is also the world's largest exporter of Lobsters. Despite its small size, Nova Scotia has provided two Prime Ministers of Canada, Charles Tupper and Robert Borden.

Largest cities: Halifax-Dartmouth 1,010,000 CMA, Sydney 132,000, Kentville 80,000, Truro 61,000, Lunenburg 50,000, Amhurst 42,000, Pictou 40,000, Yarmouth 35,000, Antigonish 29,000

Primary languages spoken: English 84%, Gaelic 9%, French 5%, Native languages (Mi'kmaq, Algonquian) 2 %, all others <1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 46%

Ethnicity: British isles 69%, African 10%, N European 6%, Native 6% , Indian 3%, Asian 2% , Middle Eastern 2% , S European 2%.

Schools: Dalhousie University (Halifax), St. Mary's U (Halifax), Mt. St. Vincent's U (Halifax), Queen's College U (Wolfville), Cape Breton U (Sydney), St. Francis Xavier U (Antigonish), Université Sainte-Anne (Pointe de L'Eglise), Atlantic Tech (Halifax), RCN Acadamy (Halifax), 11 Colleges.

Pro Sports: hockey, Halifax Dreadnoughts (NHL).  football, Halifax Schooners (CFL). 

Economy: Ship building, shipping, tourism, auto and tire manufacturing, fishing (lobsters, mussels), steel making, gypsum and coal mining, beer brewing, agriculture (berries, fruit trees, sheep), wine making, pulp and paper. Nova Scotia's economy is ranked 12th.

Military: Royal Canadian Navy, base Halifax; RCN HQ, Atlantic Fleet (1 AC carrier, 1 battleship, 2 heli-carriers, 2 cruisers, 6 destroyers {1 British}, 4 frigates, 2 subs, 2 supt ships), RCN Acadamy, 2 Cdo, RC Marines.

               Royal Canadian Army, (Halifax, Sydney); 43 Brigade (Res), 4 (Armoured) Division.

               Royal Canadian Air Force, base Shearwater; 8 Wing; 102 Search and Rescue Sqn, 421 Transport Sqn, 602 Maritime Patrol Sqn, 612 Anti-Submarine Sqn, 160 AAD Bty (RCA).


Acadia,

Province of Acadia  (1842)
Capital: Gaspareaux
Area: 124,368 sq. kms, ranked 19th
Population: 1,810,000, ranked 12th
Highest Point: Mt. Katahdin 1,605m
Plant: Purple Violet
Bird: Black capped Chickadee

A greatly forested land with a fertile island, the land was home to the Mi'kmaq tribe for centuries. Discovered in 1534 by Jacques Cartier, the French followed with a colony in 1604. The Acadian colony was the site of many battles with the British, eventually falling in 1704. That was followed by the Acadian expulsion which lasted until the 1780's. English planters replaced the Acadians. The British named the colony New Brunswick. After the American revolution, the western region was claimed by Massachusetts and called Maine. Isle Sainte-Jean was named Prince Edward Island by the British. After the War of 1812, the British had taken back the northern part of Maine. With the conquest of New Orleans, and the roots of a Canadian nation developing, the Acadians were allowed back to settle the region in all but Nova Scotia in 1818. The three regions (Prince Edward island, New Brunswick and northern Maine) convened and agreed on merging into the colony of Acadia. Acadia joined Canada as an original province in 1842. Acadia is one of the most bi-lingual provinces in Canada. The Confederation Bridge, completed in 1987, is 12,900m long and connects Isle Ste. Jean to mainland Acadia.

Largest cities: Gaspareaux 627,000 CMA, St John 445,000, Fredericton 150,000, Mirimaci 120,000, Bathurst 61,000, Charlottetown 55,000,  Bouctouche 35,000 Summerside 20,000 Presque-Ilse  15,000, Caribou 12,000

Primary languages spoken: French 57%, English 36%, Native languages (Mi'kmaq, Algonquian) 3 %, Gaelic 2%, Chinese 1%, German 1%, all others <1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 86%

Ethnicity: S European 65%, British isles 14%, N European 9%, Native 6%, Asian 3%, African 2%, Indian 1%

Schools: Université d'Acadia (Gaspareaux), Mt. Allison U (Sackville), University of New Brunswick (St. John), Université de L'Ile Sainte-Jean (Charlottetown), St. Thomas U (Fredericton), 4 colleges.

Pro sports: hockey, Acadia Moose (NHL).

Economy: Lumber, pulp and paper, ship building, agriculture (potatoes, maple syrup, vegetables, berries), fishing (lobsters, oysters, mussels), auto manufacturing, beer making, mining (lead, zinc, copper). Acadia's economy is ranked 15th.

Military: Royal Canadian Army, base Gagetown; 4 (Armoured) Division, 41 (Armoured) Brigade, Armour Corps battle school, RC Engineer school, 814 Tac Hel Sqn (RCAF). (Gaspareaux and St. John); 42 Brigade (Res)

              Royal Canadian Air Force, base Summerside; 12 Wing; 312 Trg Sqn, 661 Maritime Patrol Sqn, 799 Fighter Sqn, Maritime air trg center, 131 AAD Bty (RCA).


 Québec,

Province of Québec (1842) 
Capital: Québec City
Area: 1,175,056 sq. kms, ranked 5th
Population: 12,210,000, ranked 2nd
Highest Point: Mt. Jacques-Cartier 1,268m
Plant: Blue flag Iris
Bird: Snowy Owl

Québec is one of the oldest European colonies in North America. France first settled in the St. Lawrence River basin in the early 1500's after Jacques Cartier explored the region. Samuel Champlain was the first governor of New France and mainly established trading posts with the native Algonquian and Huron tribes. New France thrived for centuries and explorers and Voyageurs ventured out north and westward to map out the continent. Most of current day Canada was part of New France at some time. After the French and Indian wars (1759), France lost claim to the colony and the other western possessions to the British. The colony was too big to expel the inhabitants so compromises were made so that Lower Canada could keep its French identity. French Canadians showed their loyalty while fighting the American patriots in the revolution. Québec was the center for Britain's military strength in North America. The addition of the loyalist Vendéens grew the size and strength of Lower Canada and helped provide victory over the Americans in the 1812 war. As talk of a united, self-governing Canada began, Lower Canada (Québec) was the biggest colony and a leader in the process. Louis-Joseph Papineau was a key leader in the drive and became Canada's first Prime Minister. Québec has provided the most Prime Ministers with nine (Papineau, Cartier, Galt, Langevin, Laurier, St. Laurent, Trudeau, Mulrony and Martin). Montréal was the hub of commerce for the first 125 years of the country. Québec's population is now second to Ontario but is still a major economic, cultural and political influence on the nation. Montréal hosted the world expo in 1967 and the Olympic Summer games in 1968. Québec City hosted the Olympic Winter games in 1980. 

Largest cities: Montréal 5,650,000 CMA, Québec 1,620,000 CMA, Sherbrooke 790,000, Gatineau 320,000, Saguenay 250,000, Trois Riviéres 200,000, Ste.Jean-sur-Richelieu 125,000, Granby 105,000, Drummondville 90,000, St. Hyacinthe 75,000

Primary languages spoken: French 77%, English 8%, Arabic 4% , Spanish 3%, Italian 2%, Creole 2%, Vietnamese 2%, Native languages (Mohawk, Algonquian, Huron, Ottawa, Mi'kmaq) 1%, Chinese 1%, all others <1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 34%
 
Ethnicity: S European 56%, British isles 15%, African 8% , Middle Eastern 7%, Asian 5% , N European 5%, Native 3%, Indian 1%
  
Schools: McGill University (Montréal), Université Laval (Québec), Université de Montréal, UQAM (Montréal), Concordia U (Montréal), U de Sherbrooke, U de Gatineau, Bishop's U (Sherbrooke), U de Trois-Riviére, U de Rimouski, U de Saguenay, U de Québec en Rouyn-Noranda, 18 colleges.

Pro sports: hockey, Montréal Maroons (NHL), Québec Nordiqués (NHL), Sherbrooke Voltéguers (NHL). football, Montréal Allouettes (CFL), Québec Bulldogs (CFL), lacrosse, Montréal Warriors (NLL), Québec Rapides (NLL)

Economy: Manufacturing (aircraft, auto, other vehicles, machines, appliances, consumer products), hydro-electric power production, telecommunications, IT, finance and banking, insurance, transportation, mining (gold, iron, copper, zinc, titanium), steel making, lumber, pulp and paper, agriculture (pork, dairy cattle, chickens, tobacco, soy beans, barley), food processing, maple syrup, distilleries, beer making, clothing and textiles, film and media, recreation and tourism. Québec's economy is ranked 4th.

Military:    Royal Canadian Army, base Valcartier; 3 (Mech Infantry) Division, 36 Brigade, Mech Infantry school East, 815 Tac Hel Sqn (RCAF). Montréal; 38 Brigade (Res), RCA Admin and Logistics school, Québec; 37 Brigade (Res), Sherbrooke; 39 Brigade (Res).
              
                  Royal Canadian Air Force, base Bagotville; 10 Wing; 449 Refuel Sqn, 722 Fighter Sqn, 725 Fighter Sqn, 150 AAD Bty (RCA).

Champlain, 


Province of Champlain (1876) 
Capital: Bergerac
Area: 71,520 sq. kms, ranked 20th (2nd smallest)
Population: 465,000, ranked 15th
Highest Point: Mount Marcy 1,629m
Plant: Red Clover
Bird: Hermit Thrush

Once a battled over territory of the Huron and the Iroquois tribes, this mountainous area saw settlers arrive from France and Holland. When the Dutch lost their claim to the English, it became part of New York. It was heavily fought over during the French and Indian wars with many battles. With the French loss, this region was part of New York and New Hampshire. After the American revolution New Hampshire divided and created Vermont as the western half. There was settlements along the St. Lawrence River and Lake Champlain. During the war of 1812-14, the region once again saw heavy fighting at Lake Champlain, Chateauguay, and Sacketts Harbour. Britain retained this region after winning the war to create a buffer zone protecting the St. Lawrence. The US had to accept the loss of territory. Over time some Americans moved south back to US controlled territory but the land filled with farmers from Québec and some new Canadian immigrants. It remained the Lake Champlain territory for years as it was debated whether it should be annexed into Ontario or Québec or be divided between them. In 1876, the inhabitants voted in favour of forming their own province. The new province was attacked again in the Third US war in 1892 but stayed in Canadian hands. The province is very rural without any large cities. Lumber and agriculture are the key industries but Champlain is the world's largest exporter of maple syrup. It is also a favourite year round destination for recreation and tourism with Lake Champlain cottage country and winter sports parks. Lake Placid has hosted the Winter Olympic games twice, in 1936 and 1960.

Largest cities: Bergerac 193,000 CMA, Watertown, 52,000, Plattsburgh 43,000, Ogdensbug 30,000, Potsdam 26,000, Montpelier 24,000.

Primary languages spoken: English 57%, French 38%, Dutch 3%, Native languages (Mohawk,Cayuga) 2%, all others <1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 67%
 
Ethnicity:  British isles 40%, S European 27%, N European 20%, African 6% , Native 5%,
Middle Eastern 1%, Asian 1%.

Schools: Champlain University (Bergerac), Université de Vermont (Bergerac), 3 colleges.

Pro Sports: None

Economy: Lumber, recreation and tourism, maple syrup, agriculture (dairy cattle, pork, sheep, chickens, vegetables, soybeans, barley, honey, tobacco), furniture manufacturing, fishing. Champlain's economy is ranked 13th.

Military:    Royal Canadian Army, base Watertown; 10 (Mountain) Division, 26 Brigade, 27 Brigade, 844 Tac Hel Sqn (RCAF). Bergerac; 28 Brigade (Res).

Ontario, 


Province of Ontario (1842) 
Capital: Toronto
Area: 558,871 sq. kms, ranked 10th
Population: 18,160,000, ranked 1st
Highest Point: Eagle Mountain 701m
Plant: White Trillium
Bird: Common Loon

Ontario is center of Canada. Its landscape varies with the rugged, mineral rich Canadian Shield in the north, lush, fertile land in the south and intertwined with multiple waterways. Ontario sits along four of five Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence River, the Niagara, Detroit, St. Clair, and St. Mary's Rivers, the Welland Canal, the Rideau Canal, and the Trent-Severn waterway. It has the largest and most diverse population and is the most functionally bi-lingual. It is home to Canada's national capital and Royal residence. Ontario was home to many indigenous tribes, including the Huron, Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Mohawk and Neutral tribes. French explores traded with them from the 16th century until the English defeated the French in 1759. Many French towns were already established along the waterways. The great migration of United Empire Loyalists came to Upper Canada during and following the American revolution. Land grants were given to the loyal Iroquois tribes following the war. Many battles were fought in Upper Canada during the 1812-14 war. After the victory many more British soldiers settled in the farmlands. Ontario became the hub for immigrants coming from Europe and the US.  By 1900, Ontario's population exceeded Québec's. Steel mills opened in Hamilton in the 1860s and industry boomed. Railroads branched out from Toronto. Auto and aircraft manufacturing became a major industry as did other manufacturers. Toronto's business and finance district grew and it became a world city and Canada's largest. Many new immigrants come to Ontario, mostly from India and China now, making it the most culturally diverse province. Ontario is home for five Prime Ministers (George Brown, John A MacDonald, William Lyon MacKenzie King, Lester B Pearson, and Lincoln Alexander).

Largest Cities: Toronto 8,420,000 CMA, Ottawa 1,725,000 CMA, Windsor (national capital) 1,315,000 CMA, Frontenac 1,110,000 CMA, Hamilton 890,000 CMA, Kitchener 600,000 CMA, Secord-Niagara 490,000 CMA, Amhurst 355,000, Sudbury 295,000, Oshawa 265,000, Thunder Bay 225,000, Guelph 190,000, Peterborough 170,000, Sault Ste. Marie 135,000 Belleville 120,000, North Bay 110,000, Barrie 105,000, Sarnia 100,000

Primary languages spoken: English 46%, French 31%, Punjabi 5%, Arabic 4%, Hindi 4%, Chinese 3%, Italian 2%, German 2%, Serb-Croatian 1%, Dutch 1%, Native languages (Mohawk,Cayuga, Huron, Ojibwa) 1%, all others <1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 87%

Ethnicity:  British isles 30%, S European 24%, N European 18%,  Indian 9% African 8%,
Middle Eastern 5%, Asian 5%, Native 1%.

Schools: University of Toronto, UTM (Mississaugua), U Western Ontario (Windsor), U of Ottawa, McMaster U (Hamilton), U of Waterloo (Kitchener), Queen's U (Frontenac), York U (Toronto), Ryerson U (Toronto),  Carleton U (Ottawa), U of Guelph, Brock U (Secord), U of Amhurst, Ontario Institute of Technology (Oshawa), Wilfred Laurier U (Kitchener), Laurentien U (Sudbury), Lakehead U (Thunder Bay), Trent U (Peterborough), Université de L'Ontario (Toronto), Nipissing U (North Bay), Algoma U (Sault Ste. Marie), King's U (Windsor), St. Michael's U (Toronto), Royal Military College (Frontenac), 24 colleges.

Pro Sports: hockey, Toronto Maple Leafs (NHL), Hamilton Bulldogs (NHL), Frontenac Sabres (NHL), Ottawa Voyageurs (NHL), Windsor Royals (NHL). football, Hamilton Tigers (CFL), Toronto Argonauts (CFL), Frontenac Dragons (CFL), Ottawa Vikings (CFL), Windsor Monarchs (CFL), lacrosse, Toronto Rock (NLL), Ottawa Hawks (NLL)

Economy: Finance and banking, manufacturing (autos, aircraft, trucks, machines, consumer goods, electronics, computers, weapons), steel making, food processing, IT, aerospace tech, nuclear tech, film and media, music recording, mining (nickel, gold, copper, zinc, platinum, gypsum, salt), agriculture (pork, dairy cattle, beef cattle, chickens, fruit trees, vegetables, corn, wheat, honey, berries, hops, tobacco), transportation, wine making, beer making, distilleries, recreation and tourism, lumber, hydro-electric power production, chemicals, natural gas, insurance. Ontario's economy is ranked 1st.

Military:   Royal Canadian Navy, station Toronto; Lake Ontario Sqn.(3 frigates), station Port Colbourne; Lake Erie East Sqn. (3 frigates), station Port Rondeau; Lake Erie West Sqn. (2 frigates), station Thunder Bay; Great Lakes Sqn. (4 frigates)

                 Royal Canadian Army, base Frontenac; RC Army HQ, 1 (Mech Infantry) Division, 31 Brigade, Royal Military College, RC Signals school, RC Electical and Mechanical Engineers school, Royal Canadian Army Staff College, 818 Tac Hel Sqn (RCAF). base Pettawawa; CF Spec Ops Division, JTF1, JTF2, 899 Spec Ops Sqn (RCAF), Toronto; 33 Brigade (Res), (Hamilton and Windsor); 32 Brigade (Res), Ottawa; 34 Brigade (Res).

                Royal Canadian Air Force, base Trenton, 2 Wing; 105 Search and Rescue Sqn, 210 Bomber Sqn, 441 Transport Sqn, 494 Transport Sqn, 117 AAD Bty (RCA). base Borden; 9 Wing; 711 Fighter Sqn, 730 Fighter Sqn, RCAF Mech school, 144 AAD Bty (RCA) base North Bay; 20 Wing; 266 Spec Bomber Sqn, 500 EW Sqn, 177 AAD Bty (RCA).

Michigan,

Province of Michigan (1842) 
Capital: Detroit
Area: 274,075 sq. kms, ranked 16th
Population: 10,139,000, ranked 4th
Highest Point: Mount Arvon 603m
Plant: Apple Blossom
Bird: Robin

Michigan is a land consisting of two peninsulas, the lower "mitten" and the upper arm which are connected by the Mackinaw Straits. It is almost surrounded by water, touching four out the five Great Lakes. The land was home to the Ojibwa tribes for centuries and then French explores in the 17th century and became part of New France. The territory was lost to the English after the French and Indian war in 1762. It was then granted to the United States following the American Revolution in 1786, although the northern border was not defined. The war of 1812 saw its quick capture by the British forces and remained so after the war. The southern border was set on the Maumee River although it was fought over again and moved several times during the Second US War in 1843 and again in 1892 when the border was permanently fixed. Michigan was one of the original provinces of Confederation in 1842. Michigan saw a large influx of slaves escaping bondage in the US via the underground railroad. Immigration continued with farmers coming from Britain and Europe as Michigan had some of the best farmland in the country.With Detroit's position on the Great Lakes system, and the waterways open, it became an industrial and manufacturing hub. Automobile plants flourished and became a magnet for workers. It is still the center for the country's auto industry and is a world leader. The country's music industry was also founded in Michigan and remains the leader in recording production. Michigan is the birthplace of two Prime Ministers (Russel A Alger and G.Mennen Williams)

Largest Cities: Detroit 4,331,000 CMA, Grand Rapids 800,000 CMA, Lansing 550,000 CMA,  Kalamazoo 520,000 CMA, Toledo 335,000, Saginaw 315,000, Joliette 290,000, Carleton 225,000, Ann Arbour 125,000 Flint 105,000, South Bend 100,000, Marquette 65,000

Primary languages spoken: English 74%, French 10%, Arabic 6%, Chinese 3%, Dutch 3%, Italian 2%, Korean 1%, Native languages (Ojibwa, Ottawa, Pottawatomie) 1%, all others <1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 35%

Ethnicity:  British isles 40%, N European 25%, African 13%, S European 9%, Middle Eastern 6%, Asian 5%, Native 1%, Indian 1%.

Schools: University of Michigan (Ann Arbour), Lansing U, U of Detroit, U of Notre Dame (South Bend), U of Western Michigan (Kalamazoo), U of Toledo, Wayne U (Warren), Oaklands U (Detroit), Eastern Michigan U (Ypsalnti), St. Thomas U (Carleton), Central Michigan U (Lansing), Joliette U, Saginaw Valley U, Lake Superior U (Alçon), Calvin U (Grand Rapids), Kettering U (Flint), St. Francis U (Carleton), U of Northern Michigan (Marquette). 22 Colleges.

Pro Sports: hockey, Detroit Red Wings (NHL), football, Detroit Rhinos (CFL), lacrosse, Detroit Express (NLL).

Economy: Manufacturing (autos, trucks, tires, machines, engines, tanks, consumer goods, furniture), food processing, agriculture (dairy cattle, pork, sheep, beef cattle, chickens, corn, soybeans, flowers, wheat, fruit trees, beets, hops, potatoes, berries), mining (copper, iron), music recording, recreation and tourism, wine making. Michigan's economy is ranked 3rd.

Military:   Royal Canadian Army, base Battle Creek; 2 (Armoured) Division, 21 Brigade, 824 Tac Hel Sqn (RCAF), Detroit; 22 Brigade (Res), (Kalamzoo, Grand Rapids); 23 Brigade (Res), (Lansing, Saginaw); 24 Brigade (Res). 

                 Royal Canadian Air Force, base Grand Rapids; 4 Wing: 201 Bomber Sqn, 432 Transport Sqn, 470 Refuel Sqn, 155 AAD Bty (RCA).

Illinois,

Province of Illinois (1846)
Capital: Chicago
Area: 142,500 sq. kms, ranked 18th
Population: 11,639,000, ranked 3rd
Highest Point: Charles Mound 376m
Plant: Blue Violet
Bird: Northern Cardinal

A land of many rivers, Illinois is very fertile land. One home to the Cahokia peoples and later the Illini federation, indigenous people flourished in the region. Many wars ensued and eventually the Pottawatomie, Miami, Sauk and Fox tribes ruled. French explores found the area in the 17th century and made it part of New France. French farmers based themselves mostly along the Mississippi river. St. Louis became the major city in the area. After the Seven years war in 1782, the land was taken by the British although they reserved it for the native tribes. Following the American Revolution, US settlers began moving into southern Illinois where the Ohio meets the Mississippi and began moving north. The 1812-14 war saw many battles with the British backed natives defeating the Americans. Although the land remained British, most of population in the south was patriotic American and slave holders. A southern border was then negotiated in the peace of 1815. The land remained a native sanctuary until 1818 when leaders decided to become a Canadian territory. US settlers again tried to force their way north, culminating in the Black Hawk War of 1828 which saw a victory for the natives. Immigrants from Europe and Britain soon followed to make homes in the prime farm lands of the north. A canal was built between the Mississippi River and Lake Michigan which founded the city of Chicago. Runaway slaves from the US came in large numbers to Illinois as it was the closest destination to freedom. When the US attacked again in 1842, they made Illinois their main target. Natives, British soldiers and thousands of ex-slaves fought hard and retained the territory. In 1846, Illinois joined Canada as a province. Chicago became a prime transport hub. The province was once again center stage during the Third US war in 1892 with key battles fought on the land. The industrial revolution saw the population of Chicago explode with immigrants and ex-slaves. Chicago saw the birth of the black music culture from up the Mississippi and spurred a revolution in music. Today, Illinois is the leader in food production in the country and is a power in manufacturing in the Chicago area. Chicago hosted the 1905 World Expo. Chicago was also the host of the 2012 Summer Olympics.

Largest Cities: Chicago 5,225,000 CMA, Rockford 525,000 CMA, St. Louis 330,000 CMA, Cavalier 295,000, Bloomington, 250,000, Springfield 221,000, Champaign 195,000, Naperville 145,000, Decatur 130,000, Vincennes 110,000 , Peru 90,000, Ste. Genevieve 75,000 , Quincy75,000

Primary languages spoken: English 73%, Polish 7%, French 5%, German 4%, Chinese 3%, Punjabi 3%, Dutch 2%, Italian 2%, Korean 1%, Arabic 1%, Native languages (Ojibwa, Ottawa, Pottawatomie, Sauk and Fox) 1%, all others <1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 11%

Ethnicity: N European 38%, African 21%, British Isles 20%, S European 9%, Asian 5%, Indian 4%, Native 2%, Middle Eastern 1%

Schools: University of Chicago, U of Illinois (Champaign), Northwestern U (Evanston), DePaul U (Chicago), U of Northern Illinois (DeKalb), Canadian U of St. Louis, Loyola (Chicago), Illinois Institute of Technology (Chicago), Illinois A&M (Normal), Wesleyan U (Bloomington), Bradley U (Cavalier), Springfield U, Rockford U, Northeastern U (Chicago), Western Illinois U (Macomb), Eastern Illinois U (Charleston), Southern Illinois U (Ciriérles), St. Xavier U (Chicago), Millikin U (Decatur), Quincy U. 24 colleges.

Pro Sports: hockey, Chicago Black Hawks (NHL), football, Chicago Cardinals (CFL), lacrosse, Chicago Flames (NLL)

Economy: Food processing, transportation, agriculture (corn, pork, soybeans, beef cattle, wheat, dairy cattle, chickens, vegetables, fruit trees), manufacturing (chemicals, rubber and tires, machinery, appliances, weapons, consumer products, electronics, transportation), shipping, oil and gas, music recording, film and media, coal, textiles and clothing, finance and business. Illinois economy is ranked 2nd.

Military:  Royal Canadian Army, base Peru; 7 (Mech Infantry) Division, 71 Brigade, 802 Tac Hel Sqn (RCAF), (Chicago, Rockford); 72 Brigade (Res), (Bloomington, Springfied, Cavalier, Decatur); 73 Brigade (Res), (St.Louis, Ste. Genevieve, Vincennes) 74 Brigade (Res).

                Royal Canadian Air Force, base Rockford; 3 Wing; 721 Fighter Sqn, 739 Fighter Sqn, 771 Fighter Sqn, 111 AAD Bty (RCA)

Wisconsin,

Province of Wisconsin (1850)
Capital: Eau Claire
Area: 170,365 sq. kms, ranked 17th
Population: 5,925,000, ranked 7th
Highest Point: Timms Hill 595m
Plant: Wood Violet
Bird: Robin

Placed along Lake Superior and Lake Michigan, Wisconsin rises to the plains in the west. Ancient peoples built animal shaped burial mounds that dot the landscape. Later, between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and  Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Sauk, Fox, Kickapoo and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700. 
French explores mapped the area in the early 17th century and were followed by fur traders. Some small French towns lined the shores of Lake Michigan. Britain inherited the region following the French and Indian war but only fur traders came to the area. Following the War of 1812, immigrants started coming to the region, mostly settling along the lakes. The interior was still mostly inhabited by the native tribes. Farmers came from Germany and Scandinavia and introduced dairy farming. As farmers took up more land, the native tribes moved more westward across the Mississippi and northward where the bison herds were plentiful. Wisconsin still had a modest population as it became a province in 1850 but the industrial boom soon saw Juneau grow into a large manufacturing city and the port of Duluth at the head of Lake Superior became the chief shipping port for goods, food and iron ore coming from the interior. Wisconsin is still the top dairy producer for Canada and Juneau produces the most beer in the country.

Largest Cities: Juneau 2,150,000 CMA, Duluth-Superior 1,050,000 CMA,  Nicolet 350,000 CMA, Groseilliers 300,000, Kenosha 115,000, Racine 100,000, Eau Claire 90,000, Appleton 80,000, Waukesha 75,000, Oshkosh 72,000

Primary languages spoken: English 73%, German 6%, French 6%, Polish 5%, Norwegian 4%, Native (Ojibwa, Algonquian, Pottawatomie) 3%, Swedish, 2%, Italian 1%, all others <1% 
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 26%

Ethnicity: N European 57%, British Isles 26%, S European 7%, African 5%, Native 4%, Asian 1%, all others <1%

Schools: Marquette University (Juneau), U of Wisconsin (Groseilliers), Green Bay U (Nicolet), U of Duluth, Wisconsin Engineering U (Juneau), Université D'Eau Claire, La Crosse U, Lawrence U (Appleton), Parkside U (Kenosha), Carroll U (Waukesha), Superior U (Duluth), 14 colleges.

Pro Sports: hockey, Juneau Otters (NHL), Duluth Gaels (NHL), football, Duluth Packers (CFL), Juneau Pioneers (CFL).

Economy: Manufacturing (engines, machines, tools, motorcycles, farm equipment), shipping, beer making, wine making, agriculture (dairy cattle, corn, cranberries, ginseng, oats, potatoes, vegetables, fruit trees), food processing, pulp and paper, ship building, iron mining. Wisconsin's economy is ranked 7th.

Military:   Royal Canadian Army, base Sparta; 15 (Air Mobile) Division, 66 Brigade, 67 Brigade, Air mobile battle school. (Juneau, Nicolet); 68 Brigade (Res), (Eau Claire, Groseilliers); 69 Brigade (Res), Duluth; 64 Brigade (Res), 6 (Mech Inf) Div

                 Royal Canadian Air Force, base Sparta; 22 Wing; 444 Transport Sqn, 805 Tac Hel Sqn, 809 Tac Hel Sqn, 810 Tac Hel Sqn, 143 AAD Bty (RCA).

Manitoba,

Province of Manitoba (1865)
Capital: Winnipeg
Area: 668,991 sq. kms, ranked 7th
Population: 4,560,000, ranked 9th
Highest Point: Baldy Mountain 832m
Plant: Prairie Crocus
Bird: Great Grey Owl

Manitoba is the hub of the country, connecting the west to east and the south and the north. It is mainly a prairie province with some heavily forested area and covered with lakes and rivers. It is centered on the Red River valley which connects its major cities and Lake Winnipeg. It is a land of First Nations where bison still roam freely. The Cree, Sioux, Assiniboine, and Ojibwa tribes call it home. French explorers came to the Red River for fur trading and many farms soon appeared. Most of the newcomers melted in with the natives and developed into the Métis peoples. After the British takeover of the land from the French, it stayed much the same as the land was considered reserved for the natives. It stayed a territory until Americans began encroaching up the Mississippi River. The Black Hawk Wars put some fear into Manitobans who sought out inclusion into Canada. Louis Riel, a Métis, was a leader in this effort, having fought the Americans. In 1865 Manitoba became a province but with still undefined borders to the south as the native tribes roamed freely. These remained undefined until after the Third American War in 1893. More immigrant farmers came to Manitoba around the turn of the century since peace was in hand. Many came from Germany and Scandinavia, even Iceland. Louis Riel became Prime Minister in 1872. With the railroads going through, Winnipeg became the rail hub of the country. The city of Grande Forches became the unofficial capital of the countries First Nations and a Mecca for all Native and Métis people as well as a popular tourist destination. Outside of Winnipeg, farming and natural resources are the key industries. Manitoba has the countries highest Native population.

Largest Cities: Winnipeg 1,680,000 CMA, Grande Fourches 1,001,000 CMA, Fargo 162,000 CMA, Brandon 93,000, Stienbach 58,000, Portage-La-Prarie 51,000, Kenora 41,000 , Bemidji 35,000, Grand Rapids 26,000, Gimli 20,000

Primary languages spoken: English 36%, French 21%, Native (Métis, Cree, Sioux, Assiniboine, Ojibwa) 19%, Ukrainian 7%, Polish 4%, Chinese 4%, German 3%, Dutch 2%, Russian 2%, Icelandic 2%, all others <1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 58%

Ethnicity: Native 41%, S European 20%, N European 17%, British Isles 15%, Asian 5%, Indian 1%, African 1%

Schools: University of Manitoba (Winnipeg), Dakotas University (Grande Fourches), U of Winnipeg, Université de Saint Boniface (Winnipeg), Moorhead U (Fargo), Brandon U, RCAF Acadamy (Winnipeg). 8 colleges.

Pro Sports: hockey, Winnipeg Spitfires (NHL), Grande Fourches Bisons (NHL), football, Winnipeg Blue Bombers (CFL), lacrosse, Grande Forches Chiefs (NLL)

Economy: Lumber, pulp and paper, transportation, agriculture (bison, beef cattle, rye, oats, wheat, barley, potatoes, sunflowers), distilleries, hydro-electricity, oil, mining (iron, nickel, copper, zinc, gold, cesium, lithium, tantalum), manufacturing (consumer goods, aerospace), clothing and textiles, hand crafts, tourism and recreation. Manitoba's economy is ranked 10th

Military:   Royal Canadian Army, base Shilo; 6 (Mech Infantry) Division, 61 Brigade, Artillery battle school, 876 Tac Hel Sqn (RCAF). Winnipeg; 62 Brigade (Res), Grande Fourches; 65 Brigade (Res).

                 Royal Canadian Air Force, base Winnipeg; 1 Wing; RCAF HQ, 101 Search and Rescue Sqn, 401 Transport Sqn, 492 Refuel Sqn, 333 Air Demonstration Sqn, Air Force Acadamy, 165 AAD Bty (RCA). base Portage La Prarie; 14 Wing; 310 Trg Sqn, 311 Trg Sqn, 314 Trg Sqn, 800 Trg Sqn, Air Force basic trg school. base Grande Forches; 7 Wing; 775 Fighter Sqn, 731 Fighter Sqn, 794 Fighter Sqn, 129 AAD Bty (RCA)

Saskatchewan,




Province of Saskatchewan (1893)
Capital: Regina
Area: 668,924 sq. kms, ranked 9th
Population: 3,785,000, ranked 10th
Highest Point: Bold Butte 1,273m
Plant: Western Red Lily
Bird: Sharp-tailed Grouse

Saskatchewan is in interior province made of prairie, forests and lakes. It is the only province or territory without a natural border. It is bound only by lines of longitude (101.5deg to 110degW) and latitude (48 deg to 60 deg N). Home to many indigenous tribes over the years, French explorers first arrived in the 17th century. It became part of Hudson Bay Company's much larger North-West territories and Rupert's Land until purchased by Canada in 1870. Immigration was slow at first except for some Ukrainian and German farmers. After the Third US War, veteran soldiers were given free land grants in Saskatchewan and Athabasca. Population growth was still slower than other provinces until oil and gas was discovered. Uranium also became a valuable commodity and Saskatchewan has the single largest mine in the world. Nuclear research and technology became a growing industry. Farm equipment and rocket manufacturing are both key manufacturing industries. Prime Minister William Lyon MacKenzie King called Saskatchewan his home on his second trip to office.

Largest Cities: Verendrye 1,225,000 CMA, Regina 1,105,000 CMA, Prince Albert 89,000, Swift Current 67,000, Moose Jaw 45,000, Lloydminster 32,000, Yorkton 24,000, North Battleford 20,000

Primary languages spoken: English 79%, Ukrainian 6%, German 5%, French 4%, Native (Cree, Assiniboine, Sioux) 3%, Polish 2%, Norwegian 1%, all others <1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 19%

Ethnicity: N European 49%, British Isles 33%, Native 9%, S European 8%, Indian 1%

Schools: University of Saskatchewan (Verendrye), U of Regina, First Nations U (Verendrye), Saskatchewan A&M U (Regina). 7 Colleges

Pro Sports: hockey, Regina Wolfpack (NHL), Verenrye Wheat Kings (NHL), football, Regina Roughriders (CFL), Verendrye Huskies (CFL), lacrosse, Saskatchewan Reapers (NLL) (Regina)

Economy: Agriculture (beef cattle, canola, wheat, rye, barley, oats, flax, peas, lentils, honey, chickens), oil and gas, lumber, manufacturing (farm equipment, aerospace parts, missiles, aircraft), mining (uranium, potash), nuclear tech. Saskatchewan's economy is ranked 9th

Military:  Royal Canadian Army, base Dundurn; 9 (Mech Infantry) Division, 91 Brigade, 878 Tac Hel Sqn. Verendrye; 92 Brigade (Res), Regina; 93 Brigade (Res)


Athabasca, 


Province of Athabasca (1893)
Capital: Strathcona
Area: 675,748 sq. kms, ranked 8th
Population: 5,644,000, ranked 8th
Highest Point: Mount Columbia 3,747m
Plant: Western Wild Rose
Bird: Great Horned Owl

Athabasca is located at the western end of the prairies and is bounded on the west by the Rocky Mountain rage. Home to many indigenous tribes over the years, French explorers first arrived in the 17th century. It became part of Hudson Bay Company's much larger North-West territories and Rupert's Land until purchased by Canada in 1870. Immigration was slow at first except for some European farmers. After the Third US War, veteran soldiers were given free land grants in Saskatchewan and Athabasca. Population grew slowly and was based on cattle ranching. It remained vast until oil and gas was discovered. Athabasca's oil boom was unprecedented. Athabasca became home to one of the largest oil fields in the world. The oil sands in the north are the largest oil deposit in the world. Oil and agriculture dominate Athabasca's economy. Athabasca is the largest beef supplier in the country and the Calgary Stampede is the largest rodeo in the world. Calgary has also hosted the Olympic Winter games twice, in 1994 and 2018.Athabasca has produced two Prime Ministers (RB Bennett and Stephan Harper)

Largest Cities: Calgary 2,120,000 CMA, Strathcona 1,715,000 CMA, Lethbridge 320,000, Normandeau 195,000, Ft. McMurry 120,000, Medicine Hat 98,000, Grande Prairie 69,000.

Primary languages spoken: English 84%, Punjabi 5%, Tagalog 3%, Ukrainian 3%, French 2%, Chinese 2%, Native (Cree, Assiniboine) 1% , all others <1%.

Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 11%

Ethnicity: British Isles 48%, N European 30%, Native 8%, Indian 6%, S European 4%, Asian 3%, African 1%.

Schools: University of Calgary, Athabasca U (Strathcona), Strathcona U, Mount Royal U (Calgary), MacEwan U (Strathcona), Lethbridge U, 14 colleges.

Pro Sports, hockey, Calgary Devils (NHL), Strathcona Roughnecks (NHL), football, Calgary Stampeders (CFL), Strathcona Eskimos (CFL), lacrosse, Calgary Hitmen (NLL), Strathcona Oilers (NLL).

Economy: Oil and gas, petrochemical products, agriculture (beef cattle, bison, pork, wheat, canola, honey), tourism, mining (bithumen, coal, salt, limestone, diamonds), lumber. Athabasca's economy is ranked 6th.

Military:   Royal Canadian Army, base Suffield; 8 (Armoured) Division, 31 Brigade, 30 Brigade (British), NBCW school, 825 Tac Hel Sqn (RCAF), 888 Tac Hel Sqn (RAF). base Strathcona; 11 (Airborne) Division, 46 Brigade, 47 Brigade, 48 Brigade (Res), Airborne trg center. base Wainwright; Army basic training school, Mech Infantry battle school west. Calgary; 82 Brigade (Res), 8 Div. Lethbridge; 83 Brigade(Res), 8 Div. Normandeau; 49 Brigade (Res), 11 Div.

                Royal Canadian Air Force, base Namao; 16 Wing; 106 Search and rescue Sqn, 461 Transport Sqn, 462 Transport Sqn, 471 Transport Sqn, 859 Tac Hel Sqn, 808 Tac Hel Sqn, 190 AAD Bty (RCA). base Cold Lake; 5 Wing; 488 Refuel Sqn, 757 Fighter Sqn, 705 Fighter Sqn, 747 Fighter Sqn, 139 AAD Bty (RCA).

Oregon,


Province of Oregon (1862)
Capital: Rainier
Area: 287,870 sq. kms, ranked 15th
Population: 7,659,000, ranked 6th
Highest Point: Mount Rainier 4,394m
Plant: Rhododendron
Bird: Goldfinch

A land of mountains, forests and semi-arid valleys is bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains in the east. Indigenous peoples trapped fur, fished salmon and hunted whales in the region for centuries. Natives were known for their elaborate totem poles. The first Europeans to arrive were Spanish explorers in the early 1700s. Britsh and Russians followed in the 1770s. The Spanish gave up their claims north of the Columbia River under British pressure. The Russians claimed all north of 54 degrees 40 minutes north. The Hudson Bay Company set up fur trading post in what they were calling the Oregon Country. Other than the port of Vancouver, there was almost no settlement. When Americans started moving westward beyond the Mississippi River in the 1840's and fought their war against Mexico in 1855, the British were quick to claim their coastal property as British Columbia. James Sinclair led settlers to Puget Sound and Vancouver Island. When the US annexed California in 1859, they clamed land up to the Columbia River, calling it the Oregon Territory. Britain thought it best to make British Columbia part of Canada for security and continuity. The area was so large that they divided it into two provinces, Oregon south of the 49th parallel and Nova Cambria to the north. At first there was discord by settlers to be part of the mostly French speaking Canada but found that English was respected enough and that the country was loyal to the new provinces. Farmers found that fruit trees grew well in the Okanogan valley. That added to the already flourishing lumber and fishing industries. Many hydro-electric dams were built for electricity, fresh water supply, irrigation and flood control. Ship building lead to aircraft building. The Boeing company built heavy bombers during WW2 and became the world's largest producer of large passenger aircraft after. Oregon is also the country's highst producer of fruit.

Largest Cities: Seattle 3,950,000 CMA, Spokane 1,070,000 CMA, Tacoma 445,000 CMA, Radisson 235,000, Everett 165,000, Rainier 142,000, Bellingham 105,000, Missoula 87,000, Yakima 42,000, Kenniwich-Richland 31,000

Primary languages spoken: English 76%, Chinese 7%, Vietnamese 4%, Tagalog 3%, Korean 3%, Native (Haida, Salish, Chinook) 3%, Spanish 2%, German 1%, Russian 1%, all others <1%

Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 7%

Ethnicity: British Isles 47%, Asian 19%, N European 13%, African 9%, Native 5%, Indian 4%, S European 3%

Schools: University of Oregon (Seattle), U of Seattle, U of Spokane, Western Oregon U (Bellingham), Central Oregon U (Ellensburg) , Eastern Oregon U (Cheney), St. Martin's U (Lacey), Gonzaga U (Spokane), Pacific U (Tacoma), Missoula U, U of Puget Sound (Ranier), Whitworth U (Spokane), 13 colleges

Pro Sports: hockey, Seattle Metropolitans (NHL), Spokane Chiefs (NHL), football, Seattle Thunderbirds (CFL), Spokane Grizzlies (CFL), lacrosse, Seattle Supersonics (NLL)

Economy: Manufacturing (aircraft, engines, missles, weapons, consumer electronics), IT, lumber, ship building, agriculture (fruit trees, mint, hops, peas, carrots, wheat, chickens), wine making, music recording, fishing (salmon, haddock, crab, herring, smelt, clams, tuna, shrimp), food processing, steel and aluminum making, mining (gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, iron). Oregon's economy is ranked 5th.

Military:   Royal Canadian Army, Seatttle; 54 Brigade (Res), 5 Div, Spokane; 55 Brigade (Res), 5 Div.

                 Royal Canadian Air Force, base Seattle; 6 Wing; 203 Bomber Sqn, 222 Bomber Sqn, 414 Transport Sqn, 489 Re-Fuel Sqn, 149 AAD Bty (RCA).

Nova Cambria,


Province of Nova Cambria (1862)
Capital: Sinclair
Area: 1,120,635 sq. kms, ranked 6th
Population: 8,667,000, ranked 5th
Highest Point: Fairweather Mountain 4,671m
Plant: Pacific Dogwood
Bird: Steller's Jay

A land of mountains, forests and semi-arid vallies is bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains in the east. Indigenous peoples trapped fur, fished salmon and hunted whales in the region for centuries. Natives were known for their elaborate totem poles. The first Europeans to arrive were Spanish explorers in the early 1590s. Britsh and Russians followed in the 1770s. The Spanish gave up their claims north of the Columbia River under British pressure. The Russians claimed all north of 54 degrees 40 minutes north. The Hudson Bay Company set up fur trading post in what they were calling the Oregon Country. Other than the port of Vancouver, there was almost no settlement. When Americans started moving westward beyond the Mississippi River in the 1840's and fought their war against Mexico in 1855, the British were quick to claim their coastal property as British Columbia. James Sinclair led settlers to Puget Sound and Vancouver Island. When the US annexed California in 1859, they clamed land up to the Columbia River, calling it the Oregon Territory. Britain thought it best to make British Columbia part of Canada for security and continuity. The area was so large that they divided into two provinces, Oregon south of the 49th parallel and Nova Cambria to the north. In 1867, Britain ceaded the Alaskan "tail" to Nova Cambria, after the purchase from Russia. At first there was discord by settlers to be part of the mostly French speaking Canada but found that English was respected enough and that the country was loyal to the new provinces. Farmers found that fruit trees grew well in the Okanogan valley. That added to the already flourishing lumber and fishing industries. A gold rush brought miners to the new province in the 1880's. Other precious metals were found too. The Canadian railroad boom saw tunnels and bridges built as tracks ran in and out of Vancouver to connect the rest of the country. Vancouver beacame the primier port on the Pacific Ocean for the country making it Canada's west coast transportation hub. The city also caters to the country's largest film studios. Vancouver hosted the 1986 World Expo. Nova Cambria is home to Canada's current Prime Minister Jody Wilson-Raybould.

Largest Cities: Vancouver 4,106,000 CMA, Sinclair  1,168,000 CMA, Kelowna  730,000 CMA, Kamloops  483,000 CMA, Abottsford 336,000, Nanaimo 285,000, Comox 140,000, Juneau 102,000, Chilliwack 94,000, Prince George 55,000, Prince Rupert 43,000, Courtney 40,000, Sitka 25,000

Primary languages spoken: English 71%, Chinese 8%, Punjabi 5%, Tagalog 3%, German 3%, French 3%, Native (Haida, Salishan, Na-Dene, Tlingit) 3%, Korean 2%, Spanish 1%, Persian 1%, all others <1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 11%

Ethnicity: British Isles 37%, N European 25%, Asian 18%, Indian 10%, Native 6%, S European 2%, African 1%, Middle Eastern 1%.

Schools: University of Nova Cambria (Vancouver), Simon Fraser U (Vancouver), Queen Victoria U (Sinclair), Thompson River U (Kamloops), U of Kalowna, Vancouver Island U (Nanaimo), Capilano U (Vancouver), U of Fraser Valley (Abottsford), Royal Roads U (Sinclair), Kwantlen Tech U (Surrey), Northern Pacific U (Juneau), U of Northern Nova Cambria (Prince George).

Pro Sports: hockey, Vancouver Barons (NHL), Sinclair Cougars (NHL), Kelowna Giants (NHL), football, Vancouver Lions (CFL), lacrosse, Vancouver Lumberjacks (NLL)

Economy: Lumber, pulp and paper, shipping, transportation, ship building, film and media, mining (copper, molybdenum, gold, silver, lead, zinc, coal), agriculture (fruit trees, dairy cattle, chickens), fishing (salmon, haddock, crabs, herring, tuna), recreation and tourism, wine making, beer making. Nova Cambria's economy is ranked 8th.

Military:  Royal Canadian Navy, base Esquimalt; RCN West HQ, Pacific Fleet ( 1 AC carrier, 1 battleship, 3 Heli carriers, 3 cruisers, 5 destroyers, 4 frigates, 1 Marine transport, 2 supt ships), 2nd Reg, RC Marines.  base Juneau; North Pacific Sqn (3 destroyers, 3 frigates, 7 subs, 1 supt ship), 3 Cdo RC Marines.

                Royal Canadian Army, base Chilliwack; 5 (Mountain) Division, 51 Brigade, 52 Brigade, Mountaineering trg ctr, Basic Officer Candidate school, 823 Tac Hel Sqn (RCAF), Vancouver; 53 Brigade (Res).

               Royal Canadian Air Force, base Nanaimo; 11 Wing; 107 Search & Rescue Sqn, 605 Maritime Patrol Sqn, 613 Anti-sub Sqn, 797 Fighter Sqn, 154 AAD Bty (RCA).

Alaska,



Province of Alaska (2012)
Capital: Susitna
Area: 1,632,935 sq. kms, ranked 3rd
Population: 502,000, ranked 14th
Highest Point: Mount Denali 6,190m (highest point in Canada)
Plant: Pacific Forget-Me-Not
Bird: Willow Ptarmigan

Once the point of crossing from Asia across the Bering straits via a now extinct land bridge, Alaska was the starting point for indiginous peoples heading east and south. The bridge has been gone for over 10,000 years but the Tlingit peoples still reside in the region as do the Aleuts and Inupiaq peoples who came later. The Russians claimed the territory in the 18th century and down the coast line to 54 degrees. The Russians did little to colonize the territory and grew tired of the remote place, deciding to sell it in 1866 to the British. The British ceaded the "tail" of Alaska to Nova Cambria. The rest of Alaska was given to Canada in 1870 as a territory. Some battles took place in the island chain of Alaska during the Pacific War (1943-46). Most native Alaskans depended on sustinance hunting and fishing and whaling for decades. The lumber industry was the only commercal success until the 1898 gold rush. The mines drew immegrants. Oil in the Bering Sea was discovered in the 1960s and provided a new boom to the economy. Alaska finally became a full province in 2012.

Largest Cities: Susitna 169,000, Fairbanks 31,000, Valdez 17,000, Wasilla 12,000, Kodiak 9,500, Homer 9,000, Barrow 7,500, Unalaska 5,000

Primary languages spoken: English 73%, Native (Aleut, Inupiaq, Tlingit, Yupik, Haida) 18%, Tagalog 4%, Russian 3%, Japanese 2%, all others <1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 4%

Ethnicity: N European 38%, British Isles 29%, Native 19%, Asian 7%, African 3%, Indian 2%, S European 2%.

Schools: U of Alaska (Susitna), 3 colleges

Pro Sports: None

Economy: Oil and gas, fishing (crabs, salmon, halibut, haddock), lumber, mining (gold, silver, copper, platinum, zinc, coal), recreation and tourism. Alaska's economy is ranked 11th

Military:   Royal Canadian Navy, base, Unalaska; Far West Sqn (1 cruiser, 10 destroyers, 5 frigates, 2 subs, 1 supt ship), 4 Cdo, RC Marines. station Wainwright; West arctic Sub base; (3 subs, 1 ice breaker).

                 Royal Canadian Army, base Fairbanks; 57 Brigade, 12 (Arctic) Division, C Coy, Canadian Rangers.

                 Royal Canadian Air Force, base Fairbanks; 21 Wing; 261 Bomber Sqn, 275 Bomber Sqn, 417 Transport Sqn, 484 Re-fuel Sqn, 804 Tac Hel Sqn, 173 AAD Bty (RCA).


Greenland, 


Territory of Greenland (1933)
Capital: Nuuk
Area: 2,166,086 sq. kms, ranked 1st
Population: 56,000, ranked 18th
Highest Point: Gunnbjorn ice field 3,700m
Plant: Dwarf Fireweed
Bird: Fulmar

It is the largest island in the world. It is 81% covered in ice. It is the second biggest ice field in the world, after Antaractica.  Sparsly populated, inhabitants live in small villages along the coast line. There are no railroads or highways. Travelling around Greenland is done by ferry or aircraft. Greenland's people are almost entirely indiginous. Paleo-Eskimo cultures have lived there for about four thousand years. The Thule peoples are the most populous to date. Norse explores came to Greenland in the 900's. Erik the Red founded the first colonies. People came from Iceland and Norway to fish and hunt whale. It remained part of the Norweigian Kingdom until the Danes took over Norway in 1380. It was then a Danish colony. It remained that way for centuries. When WW1 broke out, Denmark remained neutral but Britain needed to protect the convoys coming from North America and set up a navel base. Canadian Army troops protected the base. After the war, European economies were sagging. The depression hit harder in Europe than anywhere else. Denmark looked to offload the remote territory. Britain and Canada purchased Greenland in 1933 to help Denmark pay its debts. Greenland continues to produce fish and minerals and produces excess hydro-electric power. English and French are both still minority languages on the island but Greenland gives Canada true dominion over the north in the western hemisphere.

Largest Cities: Nuuk 18,000, Sisimiut 5,600, Ilulissat 4,600, Assiaat 3,200, Qoqortoq 3,000, Manisoq 2,500, Taasilaq 2,000

Primary languages spoken: Native (Thule, Aluet, Inuit) 65%, Danish 17%, Icelandic 9%, Norweigian 4%, English 4%, French 1%, all others <1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 1%

Ethnicity: Native 82%, N European 13%, British Isles 4%, S European 1%

Schools: 2 colleges

Pro Sports: None

Economy:  Fishing (shrimp, cod, halibut, salmon, smelt, herring), mining (rubies, iron, aluminium, uranium, nickel, platinum, tungsten, titanium, copper, rare earth), hydro-electric power, Greenland's economy is ranked 18th

Military:    Royal Canadian Navy, base Nuuk; East Arctic Sqn (2 frigates, 4 subs, 3 ice breakers, 1 supt ship), 5 Cdo RC Marines.

                  Royal Canadian Airforce, base Thule; 15 Wing; 247 Bomber Sqn, 255 Bomber Sqn, 416 Transport Sqn, 188 AAD Bty (RCA), base Isortoq; 23 Wing; 633 Maritime Patrol Sqn, 689 Anti-sub Sqn, 713 Fighter Sqn, 112 AAD Bty (RCA)

Kativik,

Kativik Territory (1905) 
Capital: Inukjuak
Area: 493,684 sq. kms, ranked 12th
Population: 41,000, ranked 21st (smallest)
Highest Point: Mount D'Iberville 1,651m
Plant: Cloud Berry
Bird: Willow Ptarmigan

A vast part of Canada, Kativik is an autonous region north of Quebec and west of Labrador made up mostly of lakes and tundra. It is the least populated territory in Canada. The idigenous peoples are mainly Inuit who relay on sutinance hunting and fishing. The land was discovered by Henry Hudson who claimed it for Britain. It became part of Rupert's Land and was used soley for fur trapping for the Hudson Bay company. Rupert's Land was bought by Canada in 1868. It was part of the North West Territories until 1905 when the territory was sub-divided. Kativik has mines that produce precious metals and diamonds but no other industries exist.

Largest Cities: Inukjuak 2,500, Kuujjuak 1,900, Puvirnituq 1,700, Salluit 1,400

Primary languages spoken: Native (Inuit, Cree) 89%, French 10%, English 1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 14%

Ethnicity: Native 89%, S European 8%, British Isles 2%, N European 1%

Schools: 1 college

Pro Sports: None

Economy: Mining (iron, gold, silver, copper, cobalt, diamonds), fur trapping, hand crafts . Kativik's economy is ranked 21st, which is last.

Military: None

Nunavut, 

Nunavut Territory (1999)
Capital: Iqaluit
Area: 2,093,722 sq. kms, ranked 2nd
Population: 48,000, ranked 20th (2nd smallest)
Highest Point: Barbeau Peak 2,616m
Plant: Purple Saxifrage
Bird: Rock Ptarmigan

A large, spread out autonomous region that stretches from the north pole to islands in James Bay. It consists of most of the Artic archepeligo, and the tundra off the north west coast of Hudson Bay. It is a home to mainly Inuit people who live off sustinence hunting and fishing. The land was discovered by Henry Hudson who claimed it for Britain. It became part of Rupert's Land and was used soley for fur trapping for the Hudson Bay company. Rupert's Land was bought by Canada in 1868. It was then part of the much larger North West territories until they were split into Denendeh and Nunavut in 1999. Mining is one of the few industries in the territory. Alert, on the northern tip of Ellsmere Island is the most northern settlement in the world.

Largest Cities: Iqaluit 8,100, Rankin Inlet 2,800, Arviat 2,400, Baker lake 1,900, Cambridge Bay 1,700, Pond Inlet 1,600, Igloolik 1,500

Primary languages spoken: Native (Inuit, Cree) 65%, English 32%, French 3%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 26%

Ethnicity: Native 84%, N European 12%, British Isles 4%

Schools: 2 colleges

Pro Sports: None

Economy: Mining (diamonds, uranium, gold, silver, copper, zinc, lead, iron), oil and gas, fur trapping, fishing (char). Nunavut's economy is ranked 19th.

Military: Royal Canadian Airforce, base Iqualit; 17 Wing; 479 Refuel Sqn, 750 Fighter Sqn, 751 Fighter Sqn, 113 AAD Bty (RCA), F Coy Canadian Rangers (RCA)  base Alert; 24 Wing; 505 EW Sqn, 808 Hel Sqn, 199 AAD Bty (RCA)

Keewatin, 



Keewatin Territory (1905)
Capital: Pikwitonei
Area: 507,717 sq. kms, ranked 11th
Population: 52,000, ranked 19th
Highest Point: Unnamed, Gillam district 522m
Plant: Arctic Chrysthanthemum
Bird: Rosses Goose

A vast part of Canada, Keewatin is an autonous region north of Manitoba and west of Hudson Bay made up mostly of lakes and tundra. The idigenous peoples are mainly Inuit and Cree who relay on sutinance hunting and fishing. The land was discovered by Henry Hudson who claimed it for Britain. It became part of Rupert's Land and was used soley for fur trapping for the Hudson Bay company. Rupert's Land was bought by Canada in 1868. It was part of the North West Territories until 1905 when the territory was sub-divided. Keewatin has many mines that produce precious metals. Forestry and hydro-electric power generation are the other key industries.

Major Cities: Thompson 15,000,  La Pas 6,200, Flin Flon 5,500, Pikwitonei 5,300, Gillam 2,200, Churchill 1,800, Norway House 1,700 

Primary languages spoken: Native (Cree, Inuit) 83%, English 12%, French 5%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 22%
 
Ethnicity: Native 86%, N European 7%, British Isles 6%, S European 1%.

Schools: 1 college.

Pro Sports: None

Economy: Mining (zinc, gold, silver, nickel, copper), hydro-electic power, lumber. Keewatin's economy is ranked 20th.

Military:  Royal Canadian Navy, base Churchill; Hudson Bay Sqn (1 destroyer, 1 icebreaker, 2 subs), Navel weapons research center.

Denendeh,
 

Denendeh Territory (1999)
Capital: Yellowknife
Area: 1,346,106 sq. kms, ranked 4th
Population: 91,000, ranked 16th
Highest Point: Mount Nirvana 2,773m
Plant: Mountain Avens
Bird: Gyrfalcon

Denendeh is a mix of arctic and sub-arctic lands. The mainland portion is mostly sub-arctic forests, lakes and rivers. The northern coastline and the islands in the arctic archipeligo are frozen tundra. Denendeh is the most populated of the six territories. Most people are indigenous tribes living on sustinence hunting and fishing. While the Inuit people live in the far north of Denendeh, most of the tribes on the mainland are of Cree origans, including the Dené, Dogrib and Slavey peoples. The land was claimed by Britain and it became part of Rupert's Land and was used soley for fur trapping for the Hudson Bay company. Rupert's Land was bought by Canada in 1868. It was part of the North West Territories until 1905. In 1999, the Northwest Territories were split into Denendeh and Nunavut. Mining is one of the few industries in the territory. Denedeh is rich with diamonds, gold, silver and is the second biggest source of uranium after Saskatchewan. Oil and gas exploration in the Bering sea is also very productive. 

Largest Cities: Yellowknife 33,000, Hay River 6,000, Inuvik 4,500, Fort Smith 2,200, Beychocko 1,700, Tuktoyaktuk 1,200

Primary languages spoken:  English 40%, Native (Dené, Dogrib, Slavey, Cree, Inuit) 38% , French 12%, Tagalog 5%, German 3%, Ukranian 2%, all others <1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 38%

Ethnicity: Native 54%, N European 16%, British Isles 14%, S European 11%, Asian 5%.

Schools:  2 colleges

Pro Sports: None

Economy: Mining (diamonds, uranium, radium, gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc), oil and gas, recreation and tourism. Denendeh's economy is ranked 16th.

Military:  Royal Canadian Army, base Yellowknife; 12 (Arctic) Division, 56 Brigade, HQ Canadian Rangers, A Coy Canadian Rangers, Arctic Warfare trg center, 869 Tac Hel Sqn (RCAF)

                Royal Canadian Air Force, base Inuvik; 24 Wing; 718 Fighter Sqn, 728 Fighter Sqn, 122 AAD Bty (RCA).

Yukon, 
 

Yukon Territory (1898)
Capital: Whitehorse
Area: 482,483 sq. kms, ranked 13th
Population: 73,000, ranked 16th
Highest Point: Mount Logan 5,959m
Plant: Fireweed
Bird: Common Raven
 
Smallest of the six territories, Yukon is mountains, with rivers and forests. Home to several native tribes, many still hunt and fish and trap for sustinence. Yukon has the highest percentage of non-native peoples among the territories though. Claimed by Britain, Yukon was made part of Rupert's Land. In 1868 it was made part of the Northwest Territories when it became part of Canada. Yukon was the first territory to brake off of the NWTs in 1898 because of the Klondike gold rush which brought large numbers of settlers to the area. Gold mining still rules Yukon even though other provinces and territories now supply more. Yukon's poweful rivers provide a large source of hydro-electric power.

Major Cities: Whitehorse 31,000, Dawson 11,000, Hains Junction 2,300, Watson Lake 1,400, Carmacks 1,100, Faro 1,000. 
 
Primary languages spoken:  English 73%,  French 8%, Native (Kaska, Gwin'ch, Tutchone, Tlingit ) 7%, German 4%, Tagalog 3%, Chinese 2%,  Ukranian 2%, Dutch 1%, all others <1%
Percentage of functionally bilingual (English and French) 24%

Ethnicity: British Isles 39%,  Native 25%, N European 21%, S European 8%, Asian 6%, Indian 1%.

Schools: 2 colleges

Pro Sports: None

Economy: Mining (gold, silver, zinc, copper), hydro-electric production, recreation and tourism, clothing and textiles, furniture manufacturing, hand crafts. Yukons economy is ranked 17th

Military:   Royal canadian Army, Whitehorse; Yukon Regiment (Res Infantry Battalion).

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